European Broadcasting

Gender Stereotypes





International Organisations
ILO – International Labour Organization
Promoting Gender Equality - A Resource Kit for Trade Unions

CHNTO – Cultural Heritage National training Organisation
Web Site of CHNTO - Equal Opportunities Section

AWiSE – Association for Women in Science and Engineering
Empowering Women in SET to create lasting change

International Women’s Media Foundation
Web site of ‘International Women’s Media Foundation’. Since its launch in 1990, the IWMF is trying to increase the level and depth of debate about women’s roles in the media. IWMF forums, studies and reports explore the obstacles women journalists face when trying to advance in their careers. The organization also examines the impact on the news business and the community when women’s voices are absent from decision-making about news and how it is covered. 

European Women’s Foundation
The European Women’s Foundation was founded in 1990 to help women who had achieved positions at high levels of politics, business and institutions to use their influence and contacts in aid of less advantaged women across the whole of Europe. The Foundation is a voluntary organisation which depends on sponsorship.

The National Organization for Women Foundation
The NOW Foundation is an organization devoted to furthering women’s rights through education and litigation. The NOW Foundation is affiliated with the National Organization for Women, the largest women’s rights organization in the United States, with a membership of over 500,000 contributing women and men in more than 550 chapters in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. On the web site of the NOW Foundation are published the results of a three years research project which has been monitoring primetime television programming for three years (2001 – 2003) 

MEDiterranean MEDIA - Associazione Internazionale delle Donne per la Comunicazione
MEDiterranean MEDIA – Women’s International Association for the Communication has, as main aims, the promotion of a women’s international policy; the diffusion of multimedia publishing aimed to promote women knowledge; the organization of training courses, workshops and meetings and the promotion of studies and researches. 

European Women’s Lobby
The European Women’s Lobby (EWL) is the largest umbrella organisations of women’s associations in the European Union (EU). The European Women’s Lobby aims at promoting women’s rights and equality between women and men in the European Union. EWL is active in different areas such as women’s economic and social position, women in decision-making, violence against women, women’s diversity etc. EWL works mainly with the institutions of the European Union: the European Parliament, the European Commission and the EU Council of Ministers.

Media and Women
Web site promoting the sensitisation of the public opinion through dissemination of media literacy.

National level:


Institut PANOS Paris
Institut PANOS Paris – ‘Medias for plurality in Africa’.

Les Penelopes
French Association Les Penelopes 

French association against sexist violence
French association against sexist violence that focuses its action, among other things, on language. Language is considered as an ideological weapon directed against women: the Association stands guard trying to ensure women’s freedom is respected.

La Meute
Site of ‘La Meute’, Association against ‘sexist’ advertising.

Le Collectif Contre le Publisexisme’
Site of ‘Le Collectif Contre le Publisexisme’, an NGO born in 2001 to fight the sexist stereotypes in advertising communication.

KETHI - The Research Centre for Gender Equality
The Research Centre for Gender Equality, a Legal Entity under Private Law, was founded in 1994. KETHI is supervised and funded by the General Secretariat for Equality of the Ministry of the Interior, Public Administration and Decentralisation. The basic aims of KETHI’s activities have a dual focus: to conduct social research on gender equality issues and to improve women’s status and enable their advancement in all areas of political, economic and social life, within the framework of the policies defined by the General Secretariat for Equality

CNEL – Consiglio Nazionale dell’Economia e del Lavoro
The National Council for Economics and Labour (CNEL) is provided for by the Constitution of the Italian Republic. CNEL serves as a consultative body for the Houses and the Government for different matters and functions. It can initiate legislation and may contribute to drafting economic and social legislation.

Unicef - Centro di ricerca Istituto degli Innocenti di Firenze

Università di Padova - Centro di Studi e di formazione sui diritti della persona

AIDOS – Associazione Italiana Donne per lo Sviluppo
The Italian Association Women for Development is a non-profit organization created in Rome in 1981 by a group of expert women in economic development and anthropology. The organization has the attempt to operate on equality, development and peace, topics of the Decade of United Nations for women.

Associazione Orlando
The Association born in the second half of seventies in Bologna. It promotes the skills and the abilities of the women to national and international level. It planned and realised the Women’s Centre of Documentation and the Italian Library of the Women.

Arcidonna is a national association established in Palermo in 1986 in order to promote liberties and equal opportunities for women, to fight discrimination and enhance creativity, initiative and identity in women’s world. With the goal of giving voice to women from the South of Italy, in 1986 it established ‘La Luna’ publishing house, the only publishing house by and for women from Milan southwards. During the eighties Arcidonna started to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the European Union and coordinated projects involving the world of women, above all aimed at their training, at increasing employment and at creating enterprise.

AXIS Foundation
Axis is an organisation concentrating on initiating and developing projects in the field of art and gender. Its main objective is the renewing of concepts of masculinity and femininity. Axis is active in the field of the visual arts, the stage-arts, literature, and (new) media.

Netherlands Institute for Care and Welfare
The Netherlands Institute for Care and Welfare / NIZW is an independent organization dedicated to quality and innovation of the care and welfare sector.

Discrimination Complaint Agency of Amsterdam
Web site of the most important Discrimination Complaint Agency (Anti-Discriminatiebureaus) in Amsterdam

Peace Institute – Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Studies
Initially focused on peace studies and the issues of violence, war and security, the Peace Institute work now embraces a wider range of contemporary social and political studies, that include a Center for Media Policy, which focuses on the strengthening of the media community in Slovenia, the inclusion of experts in the drafting of media legislation, and the setting-up of self-regulation and accountability systems within the Slovene media. The Centre for Gender and Politics at the Peace Institute does research and education in the fields of gender studies and politics, and social policies. The centre also carries out studies and expert analysis for NGOs and governmental institutions. Work areas: political participation and political theory, gender studies, social policies, women's and feminist movements, media and violence.

Media Forum
Centre for public communication in Ljubljana’s web site

Directory of non-Governmental Women’s Groups
The directory is divided in two sections: a) professional women’s groups and b) Politically active women’s groups

Instituto De La Mujer - Medios de Comunicación y Publicidad

The Council on Media Violence was set up in 1990 and is a Committee of Inquiry in the Government Offices. The purpose of the Council’s activities is to reduce the risks for harmful effects of the media on children and young people. The Council has to give particular attention to portrayals of violence and pornography and to apply a clear gender perspective in its work

United Kingdom
Business in the Community
Business in the Community is a movement in the UK of 700 member companies, with a further 1600 participating in their programmes and campaigns. They operate through a network of 98 local business-led partnerships, as well as working with 45 global partners. The main purpose is to inspire, challenge, engage and support business in continually improving its positive impact on society.

International Research and Publications
Description of the main Trans-national Researches on women in culture, media and communication
Web site of a Research Project funded by the ESF NOW II programme and Manchester Institute for Popular Culture of the Manchester Metropolitan University

Screening Gender - Who speaks in television?
Link to ‘Screening Gender - Who speaks in television? A comparative study of female participation in television programmes’. This project, whose research report is consultable on this site, run from 1997 to 2000 and was co-financed by the Equal Opportunities Unit of the European Commission (DGV) and by the following broadcasters: YLE (Finland), NOS (Netherlands), NRK (Norway), SVT (Sweden), ZDF (Germany) and DR (Denmark – first year only).

‘Mass Media in (Re)Distribution of Power’
Web site of the Project ‘Mass Media in (Re)Distribution of Power’ promoted by the Ministry of Welfare of the Republic of Latvia within the European Commission ‘Programme related to the Community Framework Strategy on Gender equality (2001-2005)’. Research was carried out in all project partner countries (Denmark, Estonia, Italy, and Latvia) to analyse the impact of gender stereotypes in governance and in the media. As a result six reports and two comparative analysis on this topic have been produced and published on the same web site.

‘Policy frames and implementation problems: the case of gender mainstreaming’
Web site of the MAGEEQ, a good and recent (2005) research project on ‘Policy frames and implementation problems: the case of gender mainstreaming”. The research has carried out a survey on the state of the art and made a mapping of competences in the following countries: Austria, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, Slovenia and Spain. Full results are published on the web site.

‘The representation of women in advertising’
A qualitative research on the representation of women in advertising (press, magazines, affiches) from the beginning of Century XX. 

National Level:

Web site of ‘The Danish Research Centre on Gender Equality’ - Roskilde University. The Centre was constituted in September 2002 and is the successor of ‘The Danish Equal Status Council’. It is carrying out tasks of documentation, researching and dissemination on an independent basis, publicly authorized. The Centre is a central adviser to the Danish administration as to the local governments (counties and municipalities). Its mission is to renew the discussion about equality including men’s perspective and to examine perspective enhanced by globalisation and the technological development. The Research Centre also takes a strong interest in (and a focus on) pornography exposed in the public space, equality problems related to new ethnic groups and prostitution.

Project ‘Areste’
A Research Project regarding elimination of gender stereotypes and discrimination in media

‘Donne, Lavoro e TV. La rappresentazione femminile nei programmi televisivi’

A 2002 Research on ‘Women, work and Television’ promoted by CNEL

Project ‘Men taking the lead’
Description of the Project ‘Men taking the lead’, an European Development Partnership led by the National Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment, which aims to create more employment opportunities for women by focusing most of its activities on men.

‘Men Taking The Lead: Who Does What?’
The Project web site

Peace Institute – Institute for Contemporary Social and Political Studies
A few titles of the numerous research project carried out by the Peace Institute: “Prospects for Gender Equality Politics in Central and Eastern Europe” (an international project and Summer school), “Women in Local Authorities and the Formulation of Local Policies: a comparison between Slovenia and Hungary” (international project), “Women in Parliaments” (Slovenia Croatia, Hungary) (international project), “Contemporary Citizenship: politics of Inclusion and Exclusion”, “Media Construction of Homosexuality in Slovenia”, “Models of Co-Financing Social Security Services”, “Social Status of Student Families”. The Peace Institute publishes several research-policy publication series, among them: Mediawatch, EU Monitor, and Intolerance Monitor. They concentrate on contemporary policy issues and are mainly the result of own research work.

The Media Watch project (from 1997, ongoing)
This project comprises the study and monitoring of the mass media in Slovenia and resulting reports on their work. The related essays and articles are published in the Media Watch bulletin and Media Watch bi-lingual book series (slo, eng). 

A research by RTVE - Radiotelevisión Española about the representation of women in news programming. Title: “Representación de Género en los Informativos de Radio y Televisión”.
Annex 1:

‘A Thousand Girls on Movies and Violence’
Research Project promoted by the the Council on Media Violence

United Kingdom
HEFCE – Higher Education Funding Council for England, Wales and Scotland
Equal Opportunities Research Programme

Equality and Diversity Initiatives in Higher Education
The Mapping Equality and Diversity Initiatives in HE Project – 2004

‘Language and Sexual Imagery in Broadcasting: A Contextual Investigation’
Research Study conducted by The Fuse Group on behalf of Ofcom

‘Boxed In. Offence from negative stereotyping in television advertising’
Report by Jane Rancho and Andy Wilson (ITC), Research conducted by The Qualitative Consultancy (TQC) – June 2001.

‘Opportunity Now’
Opportunity Now is a business-led campaign promoted by Business in the Community that works with employers to realise the economic potential and business benefits that women at all levels contribute to the workforce. By inspiring employers to challenge complacency and tackle barriers to women’s progress, they encourage an inclusive culture in the workplace. Since the launch of Opportunity Now in 1991 the number of participating employers has risen from 61 to 360 members among a wide range of organisations in the public, private and education sectors.