European Broadcastig

Gender Stereotypes






European Law: Treaties, Charters and Directives

Directory on Treaties of European Union
(Completed and consolidated texts of Treaty of Nice, Treaty of Amsterdam, Treaty of the European Union, Single European Act (SEA), Merger Treaty, Treaty of Rome, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community…)

The full text of the EC Treaty is published at
while at the articles regarding the ‘Equal Treatment’ in the EC Treaty are evidenced in bold.

The Treaty of Amsterdam
For many years the focus of EU action in the field of non-discrimination was on preventing discrimination on the grounds of nationality and sex (NB: The European Commission refers to sex discrimination as ‘gender’ discrimination). In 1997, however, the Member States approved unanimously the Treaty of Amsterdam. Article 13 of this new Treaty granted the Community new powers to combat discrimination on the grounds of sex, racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.

Since the Treaty of Amsterdam came into force in 1999, new EC laws, or Directives, that have been enacted in the area of anti-discrimination are the Racial Equality Directive, 2000/43/EC, and the Employment Equality Directive, 2000/78/EC. Council Directive 2000/43/EC implements the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin, and Council Directive 2000/78/EC establishes a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation. 
1. Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 implementing the principle of equal treatment between persons irrespective of racial or ethnic origin
2. Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 establishing a general framework for equal treatment in employment and occupation

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
This website contains the complete text of the European Union Charter of Fundamental Rights, as signed and proclaimed by the Presidents of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission at the European Council meeting in Nice on 7 December 2000.
Further policy documents and reports on anti-discrimination measures at European level can be found in the ‘Publications section’ of the Gateway to European Union at:

An introduction to the “Council Directive 89/552/EEC of 3 October 1989 on the coordination of certain provisions laid down by Law, Regulation or Administrative Action in Member States concerning the pursuit of television broadcasting activities Directive and Amending Acts” is published on the Gateway to the European Union at, the full text at